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About CBD oil

What is CBD oil?

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in 1940. It is one of 113 identified cannabinoids in cannabis plants and accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract.  In 2018, clinical research on cannabidiol included preliminary studies of anxiety, cognition, movement disorders, and pain.

Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no included tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution. CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC and may change the effects of THC on the body if both are present. As of 2018, the mechanism of action for its biological effects has not been determined.

In the United States, the cannabidiol drug Epidiolex was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the treatment of two epilepsy disorders.[Since cannabis is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, other CBD formulations remain illegal to prescribe for medical use or to use as an ingredient in foods or dietary supplements.

Benefits CBD oil

Cannabidiol is a popular natural remedy used for many common ailments. Better known as CBD, it is one of over 100 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in the cannabis or marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis and causes the sensation of getting “high” that’s often associated with marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive. This quality makes CBD an appealing option for those who are looking for relief from pain and other symptoms without the mind-altering effects of marijuana or certain pharmaceutical drugs.

CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the cannabis plant, then diluting it with a carrier oil like coconut or hemp seed oil. It’s gaining momentum in the health and wellness world, with some scientific studies confirming it may ease symptoms of ailments like chronic pain and anxiety.

Here are seven health benefits of CBD oil that are backed by scientific evidence

1. Can Relieve Pain

Marijuana has been used to treat pain as far back as 2900 B.C. 

More recently, scientists have discovered that certain components of marijuana, including CBD, are responsible for its pain-relieving effects. The human body contains a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in regulating a variety of functions including sleep, appetite, pain and immune system response.
The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.

Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with neurotransmitters. For example, one study in rats found that CBD injections reduced pain response to surgical incision, while another rat study found that oral CBD treatment significantly reduced sciatic nerve pain and inflammation. 

Several human studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC is effective in treating pain related to multiple sclerosis and arthritis. An oral spray called Sativex, which is a combination of THC and CBD, is approved in several countries to treat pain related to multiple sclerosis.

One study of 47 people with multiple sclerosis examined the effects of taking Sativex for one month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking, and muscle spasms. Still, the study didn’t include any control group and placebo effects cannot be ruled out. Another study found that Sativex significantly improved pain during movement, pain at rest and sleep quality in 58 people with rheumatoid arthritis.

2. Could Reduce Anxiety and Depression

Anxiety and depression are common mental health disorders that can have devastating impacts on health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization, depression is the single largest contributor to disability worldwide, while anxiety disorders are ranked sixth. Anxiety and depression are usually treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and headache. What’s more, medications like benzodiazepines can be addictive and may lead to substance abuse.

CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for both depression and anxiety, leading many who live with these disorders to become interested in this natural approach.

In one Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test. The placebo, a 150-mg dose of CBD, and a 600-mg dose of CBD had little to no effect on anxiety. 

CBD oil has even been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder. CBD has also shown antidepressant-like effects in several animal studies.

These qualities are linked to CBD’s ability to act on the brain’s receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood and social behavior.

3. Can Alleviate Cancer-Related Symptoms

CBD may help reduce symptoms related to cancer and side effects related to cancer treatment, like nausea, vomiting and pain.

One study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in 177 people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication. Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared to those who received only THC extract.

CBD may also help reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, which are among the most common chemotherapy-related side effects for those with cancer. Though there are drugs that help with these distressing symptoms, they are sometimes ineffective, leading some people to seek alternatives.

A study of 16 people undergoing chemotherapy found that a one-to-one combination of CBD and THC administered via mouth spray reduced chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting better than standard treatment alone.

Some test-tube and animal studies have even shown that CBD may have anticancer properties. For example, one test-tube study found that concentrated CBD induced cell death in human breast cancer cells. Another study showed that CBD inhibited the spread of aggressive breast cancer cells in mice.

However, these are test-tube and animal studies, so they can only suggest what might work in people. More studies in humans are needed before conclusions can be made.

4. May Reduce Acne

Acne is a common skin condition that affects more than 9% of the population. It is thought to be caused by a number of factors, including genetics, bacteria, underlying inflammation and the overproduction of sebum, an oily secretion made by sebaceous glands in the skin. 

Based on recent scientific studies, CBD oil may help treat acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties and ability to reduce sebum production. One test-tube study found that CBD oil prevented sebaceous gland cells from secreting excessive sebum, exerted anti-inflammatory actions and prevented the activation of “pro-acne” agents like inflammatory cytokines. Another study had similar findings, concluding that CBD may be an efficient and safe way to treat acne, thanks in part to its remarkable anti-inflammatory qualities. 

Though these results are promising, human studies exploring the effects of CBD on acne are needed.

5. Might Have Neuroprotective Properties

Researchers believe that CBD’s ability to act on the endocannabinoid system and other brain signaling systems may provide benefits for those with neurological disorders. In fact, one of the most studied uses for CBD is in treating neurological disorders like epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Though research in this area is still relatively new, several studies have shown promising results.

Sativex, an oral spray consisting of CBD and THC, has been proven to be a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. One study found that Sativex reduced spasms in 75% of 276 people with multiple sclerosis who were experiencing muscle spasticity that was resistant to medications. Another study gave 214 people with severe epilepsy 0.9–2.3 grams of CBD oil per pound (2–5 g/kg) of body weight. Their seizures reduced by a median of 36.5%. One more study found that CBD oil significantly reduced seizure activity in children with Dravet syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder, compared to a placebo. However, it’s important to note that some people in both these studies experienced adverse reactions associated with CBD treatment, such as convulsions, fever and fatigue.

CBD has also been researched for its potential effectiveness in treating several other neurological diseases. For example, several studies have shown that treatment with CBD improved quality of life and sleep quality for people with Parkinson’s disease (29Trusted Source.

Additionally, animal and test-tube studies have shown that CBD may decrease inflammation and help prevent the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

In one long-term study, researchers gave CBD to mice genetically predisposed to Alzheimer’s disease, finding that it helped prevent cognitive decline.

6. Could Benefit Heart Health

Recent research has linked CBD with several benefits for the heart and circulatory system, including the ability to lower high blood pressure. High blood pressure is linked to higher risks of a number of health conditions, including stroke, heart attack and metabolic syndrome.

Studies indicate that CBD may be able to help with high blood pressure. One recent study treated nine healthy men with one dose of 600 mg of CBD oil and found it reduced resting blood pressure, compared to a placebo. The same study also gave the men stress tests that normally increase blood pressure. Interestingly, the single dose of CBD led the men to experience a smaller blood pressure increase than normal in response to these tests. Researchers have suggested that the stress- and anxiety-reducing properties of CBD are responsible for its ability to help lower blood pressure.

Additionally, several animal studies have demonstrated that CBD may help reduce the inflammation and cell death associated with heart disease due to its powerful antioxidant and stress-reducing properties. For example, one study found that treatment with CBD reduced oxidative stress and prevented heart damage in diabetic mice with heart disease.

7. Several Other Potential Benefits

CBD has been studied for its role in treating a number of health issues other than those outlined above. Though more studies are needed, CBD is thought to provide the following health benefits:

  • Antipsychotic effects: Studies suggest that CBD may help people with schizophrenia and other mental disorders by reducing psychotic symptoms (36Trusted Source).
  • Substance abuse treatment: CBD has been shown to modify circuits in the brain related to drug addiction. In rats, CBD has been shown to reduce morphine dependence and heroin-seeking behavior. 
  • Anti-tumor effects: In test-tube and animal studies, CBD has demonstrated anti-tumor effects. In animals, it has been shown to prevent the spread of breast, prostate, brain, colon and lung cancer.
  • Diabetes prevention: In diabetic mice, treatment with CBD reduced the incidence of diabetes by 56% and significantly reduced inflammation.

Are there any side effects?

Though CBD is generally well tolerated and considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.

Side effects noted in studies include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Changes in appetite and weight
  • Fatigue

CBD is also known to interact with several medications. Before you start using CBD oil, discuss it with your doctor to ensure your safety and avoid potentially harmful interactions.This is especially important if you take medications or supplements that come with a “grapefruit warning.” Both grapefruit and CBD interfere with cytochromes P450 (CYPs), a group of enzymes that are important to drug metabolism.

One study performed on mice showed that CBD-rich cannabis extracts have the potential to cause liver toxicity. However, some the mice in the study were force-fed extremely large doses of the extract.

The bottom line

CBD oil has been studied for its potential role in easing symptoms of many common health issues, including anxiety, depression, acne and heart disease.

For those with cancer, it may even provide a natural alternative for pain and symptom relief.

Research on the potential health benefits of CBD oil is ongoing, so new therapeutic uses for this natural remedy are sure to be discovered.

Though there is much to be learned about the efficacy and safety of CBD, results from recent studies suggest that CBD may provide a safe, powerful natural treatment for many health issues.

Is CBD legal? Hemp-derived CBD products (with less than 0.3 percent THC) are legal on the federal level but are still illegal under some state laws. Marijuana-derived CBD products are illegal on the federal level but are legal under some state laws. Check your state’s laws and those of anywhere you travel. Keep in mind that nonprescription CBD products are not FDA-approved and may be inaccurately labeled.

Broad-spectrum CBD

What is broad-spectrum CBD?

Before we jump right into broad-spectrum CBD, let’s recap the two most common types of CBD you’ll find on the market today: CBD isolate and full-spectrum CBD.

CBD isolate is 99.9% pure CBD. During the CBD isolate extraction process, everything contained in the plant matter is removed, including any traces of THC, terpenes, waxes, oils, chlorophyll and more. What you’re left with is pure CBD…and nothing else.

Full-spectrum CBD, on the other hand, contains everything the plant contains. Full-spectrum CBD is full of all the terpenes, cannabinoids, flavonoids, and fatty acids found in hemp, all of which have therapeutic value of their own and help create what’s known as the entourage effect. Broad-spectrum CBD is a little bit of both. Broad-spectrum CBD is full-spectrum CBD without any THC. It offers all the entourage benefits associated with full-spectrum CBD, without any chances of THC being ingested into the body. 

Broad-spectrum CBD is an excellent choice for individuals that can’t have any traces of THC is their system, whether for legal purposes, passing a drug test, or anything else.

How is broad spectrum CBD made?

There a couple different processes that are used to make broad-spectrum CBD. One is by starting with a CBD isolate and then adding other beneficial cannabinoids (minus the THC), terpenes, and flavonoids. Another way to make broad-spectrum CBD is through a unique process that removes any THC from a full-spectrum extract. 

By removing trace amounts of THC (like the permitted 0.3%), you’re left with a product that can be used confidently by anyone who cannot have traces of the psychoactive cannabinoid in their system.

Why broad-spectrum CBD is so beneficial? 

There are several CBD companies that understand the importance of offering a broad-spectrum CBD oil. Most importantly, broad-spectrum CBD offers all the benefits of full-spectrum CBD without any trace amounts of THC.

Studies suggest that full-spectrum CBD superior to CBD isolate because of its extended cannabinoid and terpene profile that creates that desirable entourage effect. And while CBD isolate offers the benefits associated with CBD itself, it doesn’t present the complete profile full-spectrum CBD contains. Removing the THC in these broad-spectrum products also ensures that any legality issues surrounding THC don’t get in the way of enjoying the benefits CBD has to offer.

Many of the brands we support at CBD School offer broad-spectrum CBD products, making it easy to reap the benefits of full-spectrum CBD without a trace of THC. This not only offers an opportunity for anyone to enjoy a broader range of wellness benefits, but also removes any question of legality concerning THC.

CBD oil dosage


CBD oil dosage KOP

In order to maximize the benefits of CBD, it is important to practice proper CBD oil dosage. Since the CBD industry is so new, the FDA has not created a Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for CBD, which means CBD does not have an official serving size. So, if you are new to CBD oils or CBD tinctures, the biggest advice is to always start with small dosages and increase from there.

How much CBD oil should I take?

To find out how much CBD oil you should take is very easy. Simply use our CBD oil dosage calculator above to figure out your suggested dose. But if you want us to break it down, we’ll explain step by step why and how those values are being used to get your suggested CBD oil dosage. First and foremost, understand that there are several unique factors that affect CBD dosing. Just because your friend, Jeff, is taking 35 drops per day, it doesn’t mean that dosage is correct for you. There is no standard dose of CBD. Remember, everyone is different. The standard dosing may affect two different people in completely different ways. Here are some important factors to consider:

  • The severity of the condition being treated
  • The body weight of the individual
  • The concentration of CBD
  • The individual’s body chemistry
  • The severity of the condition being treated

The severity of the condition being treated is very important in determining the dosage. The amount of CBD is relative to the severity, thus the more severe, the higher the CBD amount.

Body weight matters

A person’s body weight matters when it comes to dosing! A 170 pound person’s dosage will differ significantly than that of a person weighing 80 pounds. Please keep that in mind when figuring out the dosage.

Here’s a standardized chart to determine the CBD amount for the severity of your condition. Your body weight and severity is relative to the amount of recommended CBD amount.

Body weight:

< 25lbs 26-45 lbs 46-85 lbs 86-150 lbs 151-240 lbs >241 lbs

Severity level:

  • None – mild 4.5 mg 6 mg 9 mg 12 mg 18 mg 22.5 mg
  • Medium 6 mg 9 mg 12 mg 15 mg 22.5 mg 30 mg
  • Severe 9 mg 12 mg 15 mg 18 mg 27 mg 45 mg
  • The size of the dropper and the amount of drops

Being that the dropper is the tool we use to administer a CBD tincture, we need to find out how much CBD oil is in a single dropper and what ml it holds. Unfortunately, not all droppers are created equal. Different manufacturers might use slightly different material which may cause the dropper to vary. The diameter of the dropper hole, viscosity of the CBD oil, surface tension, temperature, will affect the amount of cbd oil a dropper holds. This is very important when determining how many drops or cbd oil to administer. Let’s look at an Urbul CBD tincture; it contains approximately 46 drops in our 1 ml dropper. Our droppers include ml measurements for consistency.

A lot of other companies use the standard 20 drops to 1 ml to calculate their dose, while that is perfectly fine, you can see how that can be inaccurate. So, we decided to take it one step further by recommending finding out exactly how many drops are in an ml of the CBD oil that you’re taking to ensure a completely accurate dose. This is why we factor in drops and droppers when we’re calculating your suggested dose.

The concentration of CBD

When people ask, “How many mg in a drop of CBD oil”? What they are basically looking for is the concentration of CBD. To figure out the concentration of CBD, simply figure out the size of the bottle, and how much CBD is in that bottle. Many times, it should say on the bottle’s label. The standard bottle sizes are 15 or 30 ml. The standard CBD amount per bottle is 250 mg, 500 mg, or 1000 mg.

The magic CBD oil dosage formula

With all the information above, we can put it together into an equation.

Percentage = Severity/weight value ÷ (Amount of CBD in bottle ÷ Number of milliliters in bottle) 

Suggested ml = Percentage × ML in dropper 

Suggested drops = Percentage × Drops in dropper

Let’s wrap this up with an example. I have been using CBD for my back pain. Here is some basic information about me:

  • I weigh 220 lbs
  • My back pain is currently at a medium
  • I’m using an Urbul CBD tincture
  • It contains 1000 mg CBD
  • It comes in a 30 ml bottle size
  • A full dropper contains 1 ml (has measurements on the dropper)
  • A full dropper contains 46 drops

First, let’s figure out my severity/weigh index. From referencing the chart above, my weight (220 lbs), and severity (medium), my severity/weigh index is at 22.5 mg. Now it’s just a matter of plugging in the values.

22.5 mg ÷ (1000 mg of CBD in an Urbul tincture ÷ 30 ml is the bottle size of an Urbul tincture) = 0.675

But how many ml of CBD oil should I take?

  • Suggested ml: 0.675 × 1 = 0.675 ml
  • I should take 0.675 ml of Urbul CBD oil.
  • But how many drops of CBD oil should I take?
  • Suggested drops: 0.675 × 46 = ~31 drops
  • I should take 31 drops of Urbul CBD oil.